The Power of Medieval States – A Report from 1423

What was the wealth and military power of states in the Middle Ages? It is a question that the Venetian government tried to figure out – around the year 1423 they produced a document which estimated the power of the European states, as well as some in Asia. Probably drawing upon information derived from its diplomats, the report offers the “income of all the Christian powers and what they are able to do.”

The report also seems to draw on information from the year 1414 – perhaps the Venetians regularly created these documents to help them understand the geopolitical situation within Europe and assess the strengths and weaknesses of their potential enemies or allies.


For most states, the report notes how large an army of horsemen these kingdoms, city-states and principalities could muster, and routinely notes that if they wanted to conduct wars outside their own borders, only about half that number could be used. Later on, the report estimates the annual income (in ducats) of these states, often adding information on how recent wars have impoverished these funds.


The report begins with “The King of France with all his force and the feudal services of princes, dukes, marquises, counts, barons, knights, bishops, abbots, canons, priests, and citizens, can in his own country raise 30,000 horsemen skilled in arms.”


The wars with England, which included the recent loss at the Battle of Agincourt in 1415, seem to have depleted French power, for the report adds that “Before the war with their own countrymen, it could have raised 100,000, for that war destroyed both Church and revenues.”

The report notes the annual income for the French king to be 1,000,000 ducats, which is half what he was receiving in 1414.


The King of England’s forces are estimated to be 30,000 horsemen, down from 40,000 in 1414, and his revenues are at 700,000 ducats, down from 2,000,000. The report’s author also compares the English to the French, stating “In making the test of war these powers are equal. They have always been powerful in their undertakings. And if one of these forces had been greater than the other, one would have been destroyed.”


Described as “a great country, and of a people of so great poverty” it can have a military of 10,000 horsemen.



10,000 horsemen, but no estimate of revenues is included. At this time, Norway, along with Sweden and Denmark were part of the Kalmar Union.


30,000 horsemen, which is up from 20,000 in 1414. However, this state’s revenues have fallen sharply, from 3,000,000 ducats in 1414 to 800,000 at the time of this report.


6000 horsemen and 200,000 ducats in revenue.


8000 horsemen and 140,000 ducats were available to this French duchy.


3000 horsemen and 900,000 ducats. The report adds the Duke of Burgundy was earning 3,000,000 ducats in 1414, “but war has destroyed the country.”



Another part of France, it could muster 6000 horsemen.


The Duchy of Savoy was only about seven years old when this was report was written. Howeve,r with its lands in parts of France and Switzerland, it could raise 8000 horsemen and 150,000 ducats,


This small territory in Italy had 2000 horsemen and 60,000 ducats, down from 150,000 ducats.


The report notes that Duke Francesco Sforza can employ 10,000 mercenaries and that his current revenues are 500,000 ducats, down from 1,000,000.


Regarding themselves, the report states they had 10,000 horsemen, with revenues at 800,000 ducats, down from 1,100,000.



2000 horsemen and 70,000 ducats, down from 150,000.


2000 horsemen.


2000 horsemen and 200,000 ducats – down from 400,000


2000 horsemen.


4000 horsemen and 400,000 ducats.

The Papal States

The Popes could muster 6,000 horsemen and 400,000 ducats.

Kingdom of Aragon and Naples

The kingdom based in southern Italy had 12,000 horsemen and 310,000 ducats. The report gives a separate figure for Barcelona and Catalonia, which was also ruled by the same individual – Alfonso the Magnanimous – estimating 12,000 horsemen.


This Italian city-state had 5000 horsemen in 1414, “but through their present dissension and the wars they are only able to maintain at present 2000.” Annual revenues are thought to be 130,000 ducats.


“All Germany with the lords temporal and spiritual, the free and the other cities, north and south Germany, and the Emperor who is German, can raise with all their resources and revenues 60,000 horsemen.”


80,000 horsemen.

Teutonic State in Prussia

The leader of the Teutonic Order could have 30,000 horsemen. However, in 1414 he could raise 50,000 soldiers, “but war has weakened him” the report adds, probably reflecting losses in their wars with Poland and Lithuania.


50,000 horsemen.


20,000 horsemen.

Principality of Achaea

This state in what is now present-day Greece could muster 20,000 horsemen.

The Balkans

“All Albania, Croatia, Slavonia, Serbia, Russia and Bosnia with all their revenues at home 30,000 horsemen.”


2000 horsemen.

Empire of Nicaea

This Byzantine state had 2000 horsemen.

Hospitallers at Rhodes

“The Grand Master of Rhodes with all his revenues and feudal dues of his liegemen, clergy and laity of the island, would be able to raise 4000 horsemen.”

Emperor at Trebizond

Another Byzantine state based out of what is today northeastern Turkey, it was said to be able to support 25,000 horsemen.


“The King of Georgia with his revenues of 1414 raised 30,000 horsemen. At present he can raise at home 10,000 horsemen.”

Byzantine Empire

The entry for the number of soldiers belonging to the Emperor at Constantinople is left blank.

The report also offers the military strength for a few non-Christian states outside of Europe, including:

Ottoman Turks

“The Turk can in all his dominions raise 40,000 horsemen, valiant men to defend him against the Christians.”

Principality of Karaman

This state in present-day Turkey was reported to have 60,000 horsemen.

Ağ Qoyunlu

An Azerbaijani Turkic tribal federation that ruled parts of the Middle East, it was said to have a force of 20,000 horsemen.

North Africa

“The king of Tunis, of Granada and the other cities of Barbary who have galleys and boats to the injury of Christians, at home are 100,000 horsemen.”

Central Asia

The report also notes that the Timurid leader “Tamerlane with all his Tartar power can raise at home 1,000,000 horsemen, abroad 500,000.” Tamerlane died in 1405, which suggests that this information is out-of-date. Perhaps the report could do little more than guess at the strength of the Timurid empire.

You can read an English translation of this report from Translations and reprints from the original sources of European history, Vol.3 No.2: Statistical Documents of the Middle Ages, published in 1906 – click here to read it on