The early middle ages on both sides of the Channel is full of episodes of rebellion and opposition by many parties with an axe to grind, whether disinherited members of ruling families, sidelined aristocrats, or disgruntled peasants.
Roger was at the very heart of this process as head of the Irish administration from 1316, but his commission also required him to defend the island against an invasion from Scotland.
How did Manuel justify his foreign policy and how did his contemporaries view him?
In the 15th century the Lusignan Kingdom of Cyprus was what you might call a dissolving dynasty, living the last moments of its rule.
This essay ask for the reasons why some rulers such as Otto I strove for an imperial agenda and how the expeditions of his margraves across Elbe were legitimized by contemporary writers.
Would you consider the year 751 CE one of the most important dates in human history?
Hostiensis argued that the pope did not govern by divine mandate; rather he governed as a divine agent.
Henry I’s daughter Juliana was, as far as history records, the only one who ever tried to kill the king having shot a crossbow at him in 1119.
In history, some personalities stand out due to the differences in the way they were viewed after achieving glory for themselves, a glory that took them up to the highest ranks.
Pepin has been greatly underestimated and undervalued by many historians of the modem world. In his time, he was renowned as a great ruler and Church reformer.
In 1398, the Teutonic Order occupied the island of Gotland and its city, Visby. The knights held the island for ten years.
In the tenth century Alp Tegin would find himself serving as a slave soldier for one empire. He would rise through the ranks, and get to the heights of political power. When his fortunes turned, he would embark on a campaign to create his own empire.
These empires attempted to take advantage of the newly shaped situation arising after such great movements strategically, each in their own interest. How did they achieve their goals and what problems were they confronted with?
The early reign of Philip II of France was an exhibition of poor generalship, but by the early 1200s, Philip had seized most of the counties and duchies under the control of England’s King John
In 750 the Umayyad caliphal dynasty was overthrown by a popular revolution that had its origins in the eastern regions of the Muslim world, primarily in Khurasan.
When did a recognizably modern concept of sovereignty first emerge in Europe? Historically, can we point to a medieval idea of sovereignty? If so, how did this historically specific idea of sovereignty differ from its modern counterpart?
What caused the largely naval wars of 1016, 1024 and 1043 which involved commanders and rulers of Rus’ and Byzantium? Have modern interpretations of these events done justice to them?
I will try to figure out the delicate equilibrium between the appetite of the Byzantines for war, and their willingness to negotiate by ‘other means’, i.e diplomacy, or the employment of stratagems, craft, and bribery.
The emir Ahmad ibn Ismail was assassinated in the year 914. This is the story of why he was killed and the power struggle that took place in the aftermath of his death.
Did the modern state emerge in the seventeenth century or in the thirteenth century?
In this paper I seek to highlight Ireland’s significance in English affairs from the reign of Æthelred the Unready to that of William Rufus.
While the conflicts between Queen Melisende of Jerusalem and the men in her family have received considerable scholarly attention, explanations for the ease with which they reconciled remain elusive.
What were the deeper reasons that drew the super-power of the time, Byzantium, into a protracted and ‘all-out’ conflict with the Arabs of Aleppo in the middle of the 10th century?
The launch of the First Crusade in 1095 would result in new states in the medieval Middle East. Here are three videos on how the Crusader States developed from the 11th to 13th centuries.