The Crimea on the Map of South Sarmatia by Bernard Wapowski
By Tetiana Gedz
Introduction: The purpose of the present article is publication and analysis of the content of the map of the Crimea, practically unknown in Ukraine, which is a part of the map of the South Sarmatia of 1526 by “the father of the Polish Cartography” Bernard Wapowski.
Fragments of the map of the South Sarmatia were found in Poland in 1932. But history researches knew about existence and importance of this map as a source of representation of the Eastern Europe territory in the XVI – XVII centuries earlier. V. Kordt dedicated a small section to the maps by Wapowski. F. Petrun created a table of “genesis” of representations of the territory of Ukraine by European cartographers from the first quarter of the XVI century to the first third of the XVII century, where exactly the maps by Wapowski are the starting point.
Modern researches of cartography history, namely R. Dashkevich, T. Liuta, R. Sossa, mentioned the map of the South Sarmatia 1956. But only T. Liuta paid special attention to toponyms marked on it in the characteristic of S. Munster’s map Polonia et Ungaria of 1540: “The map by S. Munster, comparing it with the map by Wapowski… represents the network of Tatar settlements at the border with Ukraine more thoroughly: Oslam, Precop , Coflo, Kerkel and others”. As we shall see further, the Crimea on the map by Wapowski is represented with more details than on the map by Munster.
But before proceeding to consideration of the Crimea on the map by Wapowski let’s consider representation of the Crimea on the maps created by European cartographers before 1526. At present, there is no separate study on the evolution of historical maps of the Crimea. L. Bagrov’s addition to the article by H. Kohlin, in which a fragment of the Greek manuscript “The Geography” by Ptolemy, XIII century, which is kept in the Topkapi Palace Library in Istanbul, is indicated as the oldest map of the Crimea. The portolans of the XIV-XVI centuries and the “round” Crimea on the map by Y. Sandrart, 1687, are named by Bagrov as the next stages of mapping of the Crimea.