In history, some personalities stand out due to the differences in the way they were viewed after achieving glory for themselves, a glory that took them up to the highest ranks.
As an alternative explanation, it posits that European fortifications produced a strategic problem that the Mongols were unable to surmount in the 1240s with their available manpower and siege engine technology.
The Mongol moment has found its place in new scholarship on early forms of globalisation in Eurasia.
In the winter of 1238 a Mongol army sacked the Russian city of Yaroslavl, part of its conquest of the region. Researchers have now been able to examine a mass grave from that attack, and used genetic research to identity three members from the same family.
Questions remain about the level and distribution of destruction and population loss, the role that environmental factors played in the invasion, the reasons for the Mongol withdrawal, and how this episode can be used for interpreting later thirteenth and fourteenth-century phenomena.
This paper will briefly discuss the nature of the Mongol armies and some of their successes before exploring their shortcomings in a select number of regions
Following the Mongol withdrawal from Europe in 1242, there was a flurry of castle-building in the Kingdom of Hungary.
How did the Mongol presence in the Balkans effect its two main political powers – the Byzantines and the Bulgarians?
This article examines the decisive role played by the Mongols in the political history of the Aegean region in the thirteenth century. The Mongol invasions of 1241–44 were the key turning point in the struggle for hegemony in the region.
Here are several videos that show the development and changing borders of the Mongol empire.
Reads William of Rubruck’s mission to Asia as an instance of premodern ethnographic representation and the shape of the precolonial European ethnographic gaze upon Asia.
For the historian wishing to investigate forms of religious encounter, the complexities and ambiguities of life in the Mongol camps are enticing
While subjection to the Mongol yoke was far from desirable, rulers could seek to make the best of the situation, in the hope that the ambitions of the Mongols might come to match their own, or that the Mongols might be persuaded to support their cause.
The aim of this article is to bring attention to Marco Polo’s descriptions of economic and political features of the Mongol empire that are especially meaningful when viewed through the lens of Austrian economics.
In the year 1241, a Mongol army invaded eastern Europe, ravaging Poland, Hungary, Croatia and Romania.
Büntgen and Di Cosmo’s recent article in Scientific Reports attempts to tackle an important historical mystery (the abrupt Mongol withdrawal from medieval Hungary). We agree with their underlying assumption that an interdisciplinary analysis of environmental and documentary resources can result in a better understanding of the events. However, some of the supporting evidence does not withstand critical examination in the context of the Mongol invasion of Hungary.
A joint excavation team from Osaka University and the Institute of History and Archaeology of the Mongolian Academy of Sciences discovered the ruins of a unique monument surrounded by 14 large stone pillars with Turkic Runic inscriptions.
This work seeks to fill a gap in the academic literature concerning the study of the Ilkhanid Mongols of the Middle East during the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries CE using Armenian, Persian, Arabic, and Syriac primary sources in English translation.
Marrying the Mongol Khans: Byzantine Imperial Women and the Diplomacy of Religious Conversion in the 13th and 14th Centuries By AnnaLinden Weller Scandanavian Journal…
While the collective experience of Mongol prisoners is one of agony and desperation, not all captives suffered such a grim fate.
Prof. Ali Yaycioğlu examines the making of the Ottoman State and socio-economic formation between the late 14th to the 17th centuries.
The Mongol Empire, the largest contiguous empire the world has ever known, had, among other things, a goodly number of falconers, poultry raisers, birdcatchers, cooks, and other experts on various aspects of birding.
The Mongol invasion of Croatia and Serbia constitutes a single, albeit extremely interesting, episode in the great western campaign of 1236-1242, so meticulously planned and executed by the armies of Batu, grandson of Chingis Khan and founder of the “Golden Horde”.
In this lecture, Professor Broadbridge will present three key moments from Mongol history to illustrate the way that imperial women’s contributions have dramatically changed Mongol history as we know it.
The Mongol invasion of Eastern Europe, and especially its sudden withdrawal from Hungary in 1242 CE, has generated much speculation and an array of controversial theories. None of them, however, considered multifaceted environmental drivers and the coupled analysis of historical reports and natural archives.