Crusading in the Baltic with the Teutonic Knights
What did Baltic crusaders feel when fighting on the battlefield? Or, more precisely, what were they supposed to feel, according to chroniclers? In this episode of the Medieval Grad Podcast, Lucie talks with Patrick Eickman, who studies the Baltic crusades through the fascinating lens of the history of emotions.
16th century inscription found at Cēsis Castle
A unique inscription dating back to the second half of the 16th century was found on a stone in the South Tower of Cēsis Castle – uncovered during an inspecting of a set of winding stairs which had been inaccessible for centuries.
Restoration of St James’s Cathedral in Riga to completed for 800th anniversary
One of Latvia’s largest banks will be funding the final stages of the restoration of St James’s Cathedral in Riga’s Old Town. The work is planned to be completed by the 800th anniversary of the church in 2025.
Survival at the frontier of Holy War: political expansion, crusading, commerce and the medieval colonizing settlement at Biała Gora, North Poland
In the southern Baltic, episodes of colonisation were accompanied by processes of military conquest, political subjugation and religious conversion.
The Medieval Magazine: (Volume 4: No. 3): Issue 105: Valentine’s Day
The Valentine’s Issue!: Love in the Middle Ages, Teutonic Knights, Tudor medicine, and much, much more!
Holy War – Holy Wrath: Baltic Wars between regulated Warfare and Total Annihilation around 1200
The Baltic crusades of the twelfth and thirteenth centuries were in principle aimed at converting infidels and establishing a new Christian plantation in the wilderness, but the contemporary narrative sources repeatedly tell of crusaders systematically chasing down pagans and annihilating them with the sword.
Western Balts in the 10/11th – first half of the 13th centuries: After the Vikings and just before the Crusades
The questions of trans-regional contacts in the area of South-Eastern Baltic, comparative analysis of the statistical data of the Western Balts ornaments, arms, horse harness, ceramics, different tools and imported goods with some general features of burial rite, cemeteries based on social structure, contact zones and trade routes are described in the study.
Inventing Livonia: The Name and Fame of a New Christian Colony on the Medieval Baltic Frontier
The thirteenth century witnessed the emergence of a new region – Livonia – on the mental map of Latin Christendom.
Which Baltic God/Goddess Are You?
Have you ever wondered who were/are the last pagans in Europe? Baltic Gods were never forgotten. Lithuanians have so many however who from the main ones do you resemble the most – Perkūnas, Žemyna, Vėlinas, Ragutis, Milda or Laima?
Environmental Crusading: The Teutonic Knight’s Impact After the Baltic Crusades
Environmental archaeologist and Professor of Archeology at Reading, Dr. Aleks Pluskowski, examined Malbork and several other sites across Eastern and Northern Europe in his recent paper, The Ecology of Crusading: The Environmental Impact of Holy War, Colonisation, and Religious Conversion in the Medieval Baltic. Pluskowski is keenly interested in the impact the Teutonic Knights and Christian colonisation had on the region. His ambitious 4 year project on the ecological changes in this area recently came to a close at the end of 2014.
Disputing Identity, Territoriality, and Sovereignty: The Place of Pomerania in the Social Memory of the Kingdom of Poland and the Teutonic Ordensstaat
This dissertation analyzes state-formation, the development of historical consciousness, and the construction of identities in medieval Europe.
The Sword Brothers at War: Observations on the Military Activity of the Knighthood of Christ in the Conquest of Livonia and Estonia (1203–1227)
The Knighthood of Christ of Livonia (Militia Christi de Livonia) was the first of the medieval military religious orders to be founded for service outside the Holy Land and Iberia, and thus the first one to be actively involved in warfare anywhere in northern Europe.
The Baltic Frontier: Why were there no Norwegian crusades in the Baltic?
In this paper I will focus on some of the reasons why Norwegian interests in the 12th and 13th century differed from that of the other Scandinavian and German ambitions in the Baltic region.
England’s First Attempt to Break the Commercial Monopoly of the Hanseatic League, 1377-1380
During the second half of the fourteenth century English traders first seriously threatened the Hanseatic League’s commercial monopoly in the Baltic. The League, attempting to defendits monopoly, treated the English unjustly,where upon in 1377 the English Parliament rescinded the charter that granted the League important concessions and privileges in its English trade.
Navegación y embarcaciones en la época vikinga: diferentes fuentes para su estudio (Shipping and navigation in the Viking Age: different sources for study)
This article (in Spanish) is about Viking shipping and navigation.
Estonian small towns in the Middle Ages: archaeology and the history of urban defense
The purpose of the current article is to summarize the material gathered from the excavations of the medieval town walls from the Estonian towns of Viljandi, Haapsalu, and Narva, to discuss when they were erected, and to analyze what their place was in Old Livonian and Baltic contexts.
Island Words, Island Worlds: The Origins and Meanings of Words for ‘Islands’ in North-West Europe
This paper proposes the notion that words mirror ideas, perspectives and world- views. Etymologies and meanings of general words for ‘islands’ in a number of languages in North and West Europe are then discussed.
Gesta Danorum and the Wendish Crusade
The Wendish Crusade from 1147 marks the beginning of ‘Holy Wars’ fought against the Balto-Slavic and Finno-Ugric populations from the Baltic See.
Why did Medieval Slave Traders go to Finland?
The demand for blonde girls and boys was so lucrative that slave traders would hunt for these people as far away as northern Finland, a recent study finds.
Bjarmaland and interaction in the North of Europe from the Viking Age until the Early Middle Ages
This article intends to look at interaction in the very north of early medi- eval Europe with Bjarmaland as a starting point. After a short introduction to sources and historiography about Bjarmaland, the main content of the sources will be shortly discussed in order to establish what kind of informa- tion the written sources have to offer.
A Comparative Analysis Of Early Medieval North-West Slavonic And West Baltic Sacred Landscapes
The major aim of our paper is to present a comparative analysis of early medieval north-west Slavonic and Prussian objects and places which are interpreted in a sacral context.
The politico-religious landscape of medieval Karelia
In historical sources the Karelians appear in the 12th century although archaeological excavations suggest that the amalgamation of groups of Baltic Finns, centered on the Karelian Isthmus, that came together from east and west respectively to form them originated in the late Iron Age and early Viking Age.
The Richest Bachelor in Late Medieval Reval
When Hans Bouwer had his last will and testament composed on 9 April 1519, he bequeathed approximately 7000 Rigan marks to different institutions and individuals.
Finland, Tallinn and the Hanseatic League: Foreign Trade and the Orientation of Roads in Medieval Finland
What was the role of Finland in the trade of the Hanseatic League in the Middle Ages? Thisquestion has been widely discussed in Finnish history since 1882, when J.W. Ruuth publishedhis study on the relationship between Finland and the Hanse before 1435.
How to justify a crusade? The conquest of Livonia and new crusade rhetoric in the early thirteenth century
This article examines an apparently simple question: how to justify a crusade that did not aim at recovering the Holy Land.