Archaeologists uncover medieval farm in England

An archaeological dig in northern England is uncovering a high-status medieval farm that had close links to the Cistercian monastery. The finds have included jet rosary beads, pottery and glazed tiles.

The excavation is taking place near the town of Helmsley, which is located within the North York Moors National Park. The site was known to be the location of a medieval grange built shortly after the foundation of Rievaulx Abbey in 1132 and was managed by the abbey until its dissolution by Henry VIII in 1539.


The excavation was jointly funded by the North York Moors National Park Authority, the tenant farmer and a local archaeologist. The community dig was led by John Buglass, founder of North Yorkshire-based JB Archeology, with close involvement from Keith Emerick, Inspector of Ancient Monuments at Historic England. Sixteen volunteers took part in the dig, contributing the equivalent of 129 days across six weeks.

“This is one of those unexpected digs that shows just how much we can still learn from sites we thought we understood,” explained John Buglass. “Through the hard work of volunteer archaeologists from inside and outside the National Park, we have managed to add some significant understanding to our knowledge of the monastic granges of Rievaulx.”


Miles Johnson, Head of Historic Environment at the North York Moors National Park Authority, detailed some of the interesting discoveries: “Whilst it’s not surprising that we found evidence of medieval farming, the prestige and range of the uncovered artefacts points to this being a place of high economic importance that reflected the status of the Abbey.

“For the archaeologists to find a cellar and what we think are glazed roof tiles from a medieval farm of this period is almost unheard of. Some finds also relate to the process of iron smelting, which was clearly happening onsite and indeed there was also an iron hunting arrow.”

As successful farmers, the Cistercian monks at Rievaulx Abbey had a significant impact on the landscape of the North York Moors. They developed large scale moorland grazing and stimulated the rapid growth of the wool trade that became so significant in England’s later history. The monks even diverted the course of the River Rye on more than one occasion to allow for their developments.

Community archaeologists working on the site – photo courtesy North York Moors National Park Authority

“This is a truly remarkable discovery,” adds Keith Emerick of Historic England. “Although we know where many monastic farm sites are located, relatively little is known about them. The excavation of such impressive remains and their associated finds adds a huge amount to our understanding of the medieval world.”


The excavations, which covered only a small part of the site, have now been completed, but work on analysing the finds and interpreting the materials recovered will continue over the next year.

Top Image: The archaeological dig – photo courtesy North York Moors National Park Authority