Winter, snow and cold in the life of the Westviking

winter iceland

The main purpose of this paper is to examine how the Westviking were influenced by winter, snow and cold in their day-to-day life as they were making progress in the West.

The Case of the Greenlandic Assembly Sites

Germanic thing, drawn after the depiction in a relief of the Column of Marcus Aurelius (AD 193)

In the early 20th century, scholars identified two possible Greenlandic assembly sites at Brattahalíð and Garðar respectively. Later scholars, with one exception, have neither refuted nor corroborated this, and research on this topic has therefore not significantly moved forward in the last 100 years. In this article, the two proposed assembly sites are examined in the light of recent research.

Greenland Norse Knowledge of the North Atlantic

Thomas Haine

What did the Norse know about climate, and what was the role of driftwood in their lives?

Climatic Change and the North Atlantic Seaways During the Norse Expansion

Norsemen_Landing_in_Iceland - Eyrbiggia-Saga

In order to appreciate how the Norse expansion might have been influenced by climatic fluctuations it is necessary to consider in outline the mechanisms which control weather and climate in the North Atlantic area at the present day, and which also obtained in the past.

Navegación y embarcaciones en la época vikinga: diferentes fuentes para su estudio (Shipping and navigation in the Viking Age: different sources for study)

vikings SE01 E

This article (in Spanish) is about Viking shipping and navigation.

Seals and Sea Ice in Medieval Greenland

greenland seals

With a view to placing such developments in the context of changes in the past, the focus of this paper is an interdisciplinary study of the interaction of different seal species in Arctic/North Atlantic regions with sea ice, and, more specifically, the implications for the Norse settlements in Greenland in medieval times.

Island Words, Island Worlds: The Origins and Meanings of Words for ‘Islands’ in North-West Europe

Iceland by Gerhard Mercator

This paper proposes the notion that words mirror ideas, perspectives and world- views. Etymologies and meanings of general words for ‘islands’ in a number of languages in North and West Europe are then discussed.

From Asset in War to Asset in Diplomacy: Orkney in the Medieval Realm of Norway

James III of Scotland & Margaret of Denmark - 1468

This paper looks at how Orkney figured in Norwegian royal strategies in the west and presents key examples which show its transition from a tool of war to a forum for peace.

Norse cultural reaction to climate change during the little ice age and their societal collapse in Greenland

A 1747 map of Greenland

This study aims to understand the adaptations of the Norse Greenlanders to climate change in their new home.

Towards a first chronology for the middle settlement of Norse Greenland

Skeleton Greenland

The so-called Middle Settlement (Mellembygden) of Norse/Viking Greenland has received far less attention than either of its larger Eastern and Western counterparts.

Arctic encounters between Norse and Natives

Norse Native contact in Arctic

Contact between the Norse and Native peoples in Canada’s Arctic was more extensive and earlier than first believed, according to recent archaeological evidence.

On the windy edge of nothing: Vikings in the North Atlantic World

Greenland_Map_17th_century

With a focus upon the Faroe Islands, Iceland and Greenland, Kevin Edwards will present a select narrative of past and recent writings, archaeological enquiry and scientific research concerning the Norse settlement of the North Atlantic.

In the footsteps of the Norsemen

In the footsteps of the Norsemen

It was a land with plenty of opportunities when the Viking Erik the Red settled in Greenland over 1000 years ago.

Tooth-tool Use and Yarn Production in Norse Greenland

Skeleton Greenland

During a dental study of medieval Norse skeletons from Greenland, Iceland, and Norway, a distinct pattern of wear was observed on twenty-two anterior teeth of twelve Greenlanders.

North America’s First Contact: Norse-Inuit Relations

Inukshuk in Nunavut - photo by Xander/Wikicommons

The interaction between the Norse and Inuit was sparse, at times hostile, and could have possibly doomed the Greenland colonies to extinction.

The Lost Western Settlement of Greenland, 1342

Greenland

In the early 1340s, something was amiss in the Western Norse Settlement in Greenland.

The Place of Greenland In Medieval Icelandic Saga Narrative

map-of-greenland

This paper explores the accounts of Norse Greenland in the medieval Icelandic sagas, looking past the Vínland sagas to examine ways in which Greenlandic settings are employed in the ‘post-classical’ saga-tradition and other texts.

Greenland’s Viking settlers gorged on seals

The Norse ruin at Igaliku Fjord was known to the Norse as Gardar. Photo: Jette Arneborg

A Danish-Canadian research team has demonstrated the Norse society did not die out due to an inability to adapt to the Greenlandic diet: an isotopic analysis of their bones shows they ate plenty of seals.

An island archaeological approach to the Viking colonization of the North Atlantic

Vikings in the North Atlantic

The present paper is a brief exploration of the application of methods commonly used in the archaeological study of the Pacific and Mediterranean islands to the expansion of the Vikings across the North Atlantic during the ninth to eleventh centuries AD.

Early Religious Practice in Norse Greenland

Modern reconstruction of Eirik the Red's farm in Breiðafjörður, Iceland - Photo by Andrew Umbrich

How many Icelanders were Christian at the time of Greenland’s settlement? Were there any pagans? Did Greenland ever officially convert to Christianity and, if so, when?

Medieval Garments Reconstructed: Norse Clothing Patterns

Medieval Garments Reconstructed: Norse Clothing Patterns

A practical guide to making your own Norse Viking garment!

The World West of Iceland in Medieval Icelandic Oral Tradition

Greenland_Map_17th_century

The Greenland of the sagas was a unique and at times strange place, lying somewhere on the boundary between the known, familiar Norse world, and an unfamiliar, exotic sphere beyond.

Vikings not alone when they crossed the North Atlantic – mice hitched a ride too

Medieval mouse

New research has revealed that when the Vikings sailed across the North Atlantic to places like Iceland, Greenland and Newfoundland, they brought with them the common house mouse.

Furs, Fish and Ivory – Medieval Norsemen at the Arctic Fringe

Furs, Fish and Ivory – Medieval Norsemen at the Arctic Fringe By Christian Keller Journal of the North Atlantic, Vol. 3 (2010) Abstract: Why did the Norse Icelanders colonize Greenland in the late tenth century A.D., and why did they explore the coasts of Labrador and Newfoundland? Was it a desperate search for farmland at […]

Greenland Norse Knowledge of the North Atlantic Environment

Studies in the Medieval Atlantic

The aim is to document and discuss Norse knowledge of oceanographic phenomena including tides, non-tidal ocean currents, surface water properties, and sea ice.

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