Female Secret Agents in the Middle Ages

When we talk about spies in the Middle Ages, it’s easy to envision soldiers sneaking into enemy camps or royal messengers with a hidden agenda.

Cryptographic Systems Used in the Romanian Countries between the 15th – 19th Centuries

Situated in the southeast of Europe, Romanian Countries had an intense diplomatic activity, even if this was not recorded accordingly in documents of the day.

Espionage in the 16th century Mediterranean: Secret Diplomacy, Mediterranean Go-betweens and the Ottoman-Habsburg Rivalry

This dissertation compares both empires’ secret services and explains the differences between the two systems of information gathering based on these empires’ differing organizational structures.

The Mongol Intelligence Apparatus: The Triumphs of Genghis Khan’s Spy Network

Genghis Khan was a great military strategist, but his unparalleled ability to run intelligence operations was the key to his victories.

Byzantine Intelligence Service

The basis on which the successful administration of the Roman Empire at its zenith was built was the cursus publicus, or the state post. This organization also made the service of intelligence more effective.

William Herle and the English Secret Service

William Herle and the English Secret Service Gill, Michael Patrick M.A. Thesis, Victoria University of Wellington (2010) Abstract This thesis examines William Herle‘s life through his surviving letters to William Cecil, Lord Burghley, and other Elizabethan Privy Councillors. It emphasises the centrality of the Elizabethan patronage system to Herle‘s life, describing how his ties to […]

The Artifice of War: Intelligence and Intrigue in the Third Crusade

The Artifice of War: Intelligence and Intrigue in the Third Crusade By Dana Cushing Paper given at the 33rd International Medieval Congress, Western Michigan University (1998) Abstract: Since I have always believed that the essential element of a successful military undertaking is right knowledge, even foreknowledge, based on communication, I became enamoured of a unique […]

The Prince, the Assassin and the Mongols

On a night in June 1272, in the Crusader city of Acre, the English prince Edward and his wife Eleanor were asleep when a spy came asking to meet with Edward.

Military Intelligence in Arabo-Byzantine Naval Warfare

Military Intelligence in Arabo-Byzantine Naval Warfare By Vassilios Christides To empolemo Byzantino – Byzantium at War, edited by Nicolas Oikonomides (Athens: Institute for Byzantine Studies, 1997) Introduction: During the long Arab-Byzantine struggle for supremacy in the Mediterranean Sea from the seventh to the fourteenth century an unexplored factor, or paramount importance, was their military naval […]

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