Dirhams for slaves: Investigating the Slavic slave trade in the tenth century

10,000 silver Dirhams from the 7th-9th century AD, hidden c. 820 AD - Bode-Museum

The idea that a massive trade in Slavic slaves underpinned the economic growth of Europe in the 9th and 10th centuries is not new. It is, however, most often only implicit; and at any rate, it is very rarely discussed.

The Medieval Sense of Smell, Stench and Sanitation

Medieval woman smelling a flower - British Library MS Harley 6794   f. 197v

We will see that in the medieval era, there was concern for the foul and the fragrant because smell had the ability to make people both literally sick and sick to their stomachs.

Umberto Eco and the Meaning of the Middle Ages

Umberto Eco - photo by Aubrey / Wikimedia Commons

The narrative frame around Umberto Eco’s The Name of the Rose, which intricately removes the story itself from its ultimate reader by insinuating long journeys, lost manuscripts, and various narrative intermediaries between text and recipient, also establishes a chain of connection between the late medieval murder mystery itself and its modern retelling, thus bringing the Middle Ages into present-day reality and vice-versa

Uterine cancer in the writings of Byzantine physicians

The eminent byzantine physician Paul of
Aegina (ca. 625-690 AD).

Byzantine physicians recognized uterine cancer as a distinct disease and tried to suggest a therapeutic approach. The work of Oribasius, Aetius of Amida, Paul of Aegina, Cleopatra Metrodora and Theophanes Nonnus reflects the Hippocratic-Galenic scientific ideas as well as their own concept on this malignancy. According to their writings uterine cancer was considered an incurable disease and its treatment was based mainly on palliative herbal drugs.

Jocelin of Brakelond and the power of Abbot Samson

Detail of a miniature of the installation of abbot Baldwin and the building of the abbey at Bury St. Edmond's. From British Library MS Harley 2278 f.115v

This article reconsiders a well-known narrative source from the beginning of the thirteenth century, Jocelin of Brakelond’s Chronicle.

Monasticism
 and 
the 
Royal
 Abbey
 of
 Saint ­Denis

17th century image of Saint Denis

Saint‐Denis 
seems 
to 
occupy
 a
 curious
 place
 in 
French
 history:
 never 
has 
there 
been a
 church
 so
 revered
 and
 yet 
so 
reviled.


Benchmarking medieval economic development: England, Wales, Scotland, and Ireland, circa 1290

british isles

Estimates are assembled for England, Wales, Scotland, and Ireland, and for Britain and Ireland as a whole, of the numbers of religious houses, regular clergy, parishes, towns of more than 2,000 inhabitants, and townspeople, and the value of dutiable exports and volume of currency at the watershed date of circa 1290

The Norwegian Attack on Iona in 1209-10: The Last Viking Raid?

Photochrom print of Iona from about 1905

A closer look at what happened in and around Iona in the early 1200s, makes the interpretation that this was just another such ‘classic viking raid’ rather unlikely.

Bulls, bere and black oatmeal: Iona’s economy in the later Middle Ages

Iona Abbey - photo by Mike Beltzner

This paper will take a brief look at some of the landholdings of both the abbey and the nunnery, and at how they were used – and perhaps misused – over this period.

Number Symbolism in Old Norse Literature

numbers

It is generally agreed that some numbers such as three and nine which appear frequently in the two Eddas hold special significances in Norse mythology. Furthermore, numbers appearing in sagas not only denote factual quantity, but also stand for specific symbolic meanings.

Chastity belts and birthing girdles

A sketch of a chastity belt from an early 15th century manuscript of "Bellifortis" - perhaps included as a joke.

Chastity belts have been the subject of schoolroom and music hall humour for as long as most of us can remember. But did they really exist and for the purpose suggested?

Creating a crusader saint: Canute Lavard and others of that ilk

Canute Lavard (died 1131), Danish prince and saint. Medieval painting in the church of Vigersted, Denmark. Photographer: Fredrik Tersmeden, Lund, Sweden (2002)

In the Middle Ages, saints were invoked before great, decisive battles, they sometimes participated directly themselves, and they did so more and more often after the eleventh and especially the twelfth century.

Saladin and the Problem of the Counter-Crusade in Medieval Europe

19th-century depiction of a victorious Saladin, by Gustave Doré.

The phrase Counter-Crusade is, obviously, a modern construct, but in 1144 the military situation in Syria did drastically change.

Support Structures in Crusading Armies, 1095-1241

Battle between the Turks and the Crusaders  - The Hague, KB, KA 20 fol. 254v

This thesis will examine the support structures in crusading armies from the First Crusade, launched in 1095, to the end of the Barons’ Crusade, in 1241.

Civic Knighthood in the Early Renaissance: Leonardo Bruni’s De militia (ca. 1420)

Statue ofe Francesco Ferrucci (1489-1530), Florentine condottiere

Leonardo Bruni’s aim in the De militia (ca. 1420) was to co-opt the most glamorous of medieval ideals, the ideal of chivalry, and to reinterpret it in terms of Greco-Roman ideals of military service.

Berserkir: a re-examination of the phenomenon in literature and life

Iron helmet from a Vendel era (550-793 AD) boat grave in Vendel, Uppland, Sweden. Displayed at the Museum of History in Stockholm. Photo by Mararie  / Wikimedia Commons

This thesis discusses whether berserkir really went berserk.

Good Dog/Bad Dog: Dogs in Medieval Religious Polemics

Four Dogs before a Doghouse;  Ms. Ludwig XV 1, fol. 50v. - Digital image courtesy of the Getty's Open Content Program

From its positive attributes, the dog became a Christian symbol for conscientious prelates and preachers who guarded the community from the devil and applied the dog’s curative properties to heal the community of sin.

The Ten Commandments in the Medieval Schools

Moses receives the Ten Commandments, depicted in a Carolingian manuscript circa 840

There was surprisingly little discussion of the ten commandments in the period between Augustine of Hippo (d. 430) and the schools that grew up in twelfth-century Paris, which specialised in teaching the Bible and theology.

Textile Consumption in Late Medieval Castile: The Social, Economic, and Cultural Meaning of Clothing, 1200-1350

Spanish clothing circa 1400, according to Costumes of All Nations (1882)

Focusing on the types of clothing imported into the realm, and using information from the royal accounts and tithes of a number of ports in the Bay of Biscay, I focus on issues of production and consumption in late medieval Castile and what this information tells us about the economic structures of the realm and on the exaggerated consumption of foreign cloth by certain groups within Castilian society.

God is Great, God is Good: Medieval Conceptions of Divine Goodness and the Problem of Hell

Hellmouth  - miniature from the Hours of Catherine of Cleves

Medieval views of both divine goodness and the doctrine of hell are examined and shown to be incompatible with our best understandings of goodness. The only manner in which God could be good to those in hell – by permitting their continued existence – is not sufficient to outweigh ‘the dreadful pains of eternal fire’.

Exploring Legal Multiculturalism in the Irish Sea

Isle of Man

This thesis explores the relationship between proto-democracy, multiculturalism, and state formation. In the introduction, I express the desire to ascertain how legal multiculturalism on the Isle of Man could be viewed as a product of the shared protodemocratic character of the Irish and the Norse legal traditions.

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