This paper draws attention to the lack of information as to how early North Sea sailors navigated, particularly during the one thousand year period that followed Roman times.
Understanding Torksey, Lincolnshire: A geoarchaeological and landscape approach to a Viking overwintering camp
Primetime Paganism: Popular-Culture Representations of Europhilic Polytheism in Game of Thrones and Vikings
In his article, ‘What really caused the Viking Age? The social content of raiding and exploration’, Steven P. Ashby, a medieval archaeologist and lecturer at the University of Cambridge, outlines the many factors that would have prompted Norsemen – both the elites and the regular men – to conduct their raids across Europe.