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Reading the Exeter Book Riddles as Life-Writing

There is much to be gained from interpreting the tenth-century Exeter Book riddles as a characteristically biographical group of texts. They comprise a rich source of information for the study of Anglo-Saxon concepts of life courses and life stages.

Why was it important for the Byzantines to read Latin? The views of Demetrios Kydones (1324-1398)

This article will discuss how Demetrius Kydones promoted the policy of reconciliation and alliance with Western European powers against the Ottoman Turks. 

What’s in a Name?: Reflections on, and Echoes of, the Reign of Pedro I of Castile

There has been only one Pedro, Pedro I of Castile. This was no accidental oversight. The circumstances of his reign, and the passions and animosities he unleashed, assured that his name and memory would not be honored, sparing future monarchs of the taint of Pedro’s tumultuous reign.

Medieval Sermon Studies since The Sermon: A Deepening and Broadening Field

Since the publication of The Sermon in 2000, the field of medieval sermon studies has matured into a well-established and growing interdisciplinary area of medieval studies.

Clemence of Barking and Valdes of Lyon: Two Contemporaneous Examples of Innovation in the Twelfth Century

Clemence of Barking and Valdes of Lyons were strong supporters of Catholic ideals and were seeking to endorse Christian virtues. Nevertheless, their actions provide examples of innovation and a deviation from the mainstream.

Women, attorneys and credit in late medieval England

In recent years, quantitative research regarding the use of later medieval English courts has dispelled the old myth that women at law were mostly engaged in litigation over land.

‘Nec ancilla nec domina’: Representations of Eve in the Twelfth Century

This thesis seeks to demonstrate the extent to which the figure of Eve operated in twelfth-century commentary on Genesis as a crucial means by which to examine some of the most fundamental and problematic areas of the hexaemeron and fall narratives.

King Eystein’s Raid on Aberdeen

In the early 1150s Eysteinn Haraldsson, the eldest son of the late Harald Gille, who shared the kingship of Norway with his younger half-brothers, led a fleet across the North Sea.

Beowulf before Beowulf: Anglo-Saxon Anthroponymy and Heroic Legend

Since the inception of Beowulf scholarship approximately two hundred years ago, debate has persisted concerning the nature of the poem’s eponymous hero. Is he a historical Geatish prince or is he a fictional character inserted into a historico-legendary world?

Agatha, Clerical ‘Wife’ and Wet Nurse to King John of England, Longtime Companion to Godfrey de Lucy, Bishop of Winchester

Agatha is the earliest royal wet nurse for whom at least a faint sketch of her life can be drawn, and she presents a rare view of a non-noble, non-royal, non-religious English woman of the late twelfth- and early thirteenth centuries.

‘Becoming English’: Nationality, Terminology, and Changing Sides in the Late Middle Ages

Late medieval English chronicles contain several puzzling references to the idea of people ‘becoming English’ by changing allegiance, usually in the context of war.

Women in Domesday

Four women may be taken as typical of the sort of information Domesday includes, and the sort of women on whom it focusses.

Law and Mental Competency in Late Medieval England

Between the late thirteenth century and 1540, when Henry VIII established the Court of Wards and Liveries, the English royal courts oversaw hundreds of inquisitions involving individuals thought to be idiots or ‘natural fools’.

The Nineteenth Century Memory of Renaissance Italian Warfare: Ercole Ricotti and Jacob Burckhardt

Renaissance Italian military history is a sad story of devolution, culminating in conquest by foreign powers. It stands as a “distant mirror” of the foreign oppression endured by nineteenth century Risorgimento Italy, when the academic study of Renaissance military history first began.

Mensuration in Early Medieval Barcelona

Various units of length are found in use in early medieval Barcelona, but the dexter is by far the most common. However, the interpretation of its value is by no means straightforward.

Freyja and Freyr: Successors of the Sun – On the absence of the sun in Nordic saga literature

Why is the Sun is missing in Nordic saga literature, considering its vital role in the religious life in the Bronze Age North?

The Medieval Climate Anomoly in the Iberian Peninsula reconstructed from marine and lake records

Selected multi-proxy and accurately dated marine and terrestrial records covering the past 2000 years in the Iberian Peninsula facilitated a comprehensive regional paleoclimate reconstruction for the Medieval Climate Anomaly (900-1300 AD).

The prehistory of medieval farms and villages: from Saxons to Scandinavians

Those seeking to unravel the biographies of settlements, communities and landscapes back into the Early Middle Ages must chiefly rely upon material evidence locked up in the landscape, to be extracted and interpreted using approaches drawn from archaeology and related disciplines.

The Princesses Who Might have been Hostages: The Custody and Marriages of Margaret and Isabella of Scotland, 1209-1220s

In 1209, stemming from the Treaty of Norham, Scottish hostages were sent south into England. Margaret and Isabella, daughters of King William of Scotland, went along, too.

The Lives and Deaths of Young Medieval Women: The Osteological Evidence

Osteology, the study of human skeletal remains, can provide substantial and detailed information on growth, health and daily life of the general population.

Outcasts, Emperorship, and Dragon Cults in The Tale of the Heike

Among the Heike variants to be examined, the Kakuichibon (1371) and Enkyôbon (1309-10) exhibit certain symmetries of contrast that make them especially useful for understanding the relationship between sacred authority and manipulations of the defiled other embodied in outcast or semi-outcast performers.

Lauacrum: just another word for baths? How the terminology of baths may have reflected changes in bathing habits

The word lauacrum has been interpreted in various ways, but has never been the subject of a thorough research.

The Battle of Nicopolis (1396), Burgundian Catastrophe and Ottoman Fait Divers

The Battle of Nicopolis was the first major encounter between the Ottoman Empire and the Western European states of the later Middle Ages.

Wasteland: Buffer in the Medieval Economy

At the end of the Roman period the area of wasteland seems to have increased. Since the increase or decrease in wasteland is closely linked with the economy in general, we can discern several periods of decline and growth.

Pharmacy, Testing, and the Language of Truth in Renaissance Italy

This article examines the role of testing and innovation in sixteenth-century Italian pharmacy. Apothecaries were less concerned with testing drugs for efficacy or creating novel products than with reactivating an older Mediterranean pharmacological tradition and studying the materials on which it relied.

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