Medieval Geopolitics: The Medieval “Fiscal Revolution”

So far in this series, we have talked about medieval “revolutions” in military power and judicial authority. A third great change in the late medieval era was in the control of money.

Image and Art on Medieval Coinage

There is no question that coinage was a major part of the visual material world of the Middle Ages. Whether that qualifies it as a major art form, or an art form at all, begs the distinction between material culture and art.

The Watlington Hoard: The Viking Treasure that Marked the Foundation of England

Having you ever visited and been dazzled by Anglo-Saxon collection at the Ashmolean Museum, a priceless treasure hoard that the Museum has fought hard to keep earlier this year?

1,000 year old silver treasure hoard discovered in Denmark

Over 550 silver items have been discovered on the Danish island of Omø. The hoard is believed to date from around the reign of Sweyn Forkbeard (986–1014) and includes coins and pieces of jewellery.

Bucks County Museum looking to acquire Lenborough Coin Hoard

Late last year, over 5200 silver coins was found by a metal detectorist in England. Now, the public will get a taste of this hoard, when 21 coins go on a special exhibit at at Bucks County Museum.

Small doors on the Viking age: The Anglo-Saxon coins in Norway project

Dr Elina Screen here discusses her work on the ‘Anglo-Saxon Coins in Norway’ project – a collaboration between the British Academy’s Sylloge of Coins of the British Isles (SCBI) research project and the Norwegian partner museums.

Gold coin hoard discovered off Mediterranean coast

Nearly 2,000 coins, the largest treasure hoard ever discovered in Israel, was found a few weeks ago in the waters off the medieval port of Caesarea.

Huge Anglo-Saxon Coin Hoard goes on display at British Museum

The Lenborough Hoard, which consists of over 5200 coins from Anglo-Saxon times, is now on display at the British Museum. This discovery highlights the ongoing importance of the Portable Antiquities Scheme, which just released its 2012 Treasure Report.

Over 5000 medieval coins discovered in England

5,251 silver coins dating back to the 11th century were discovered last month on a farm in Buckinghamshire, England. It is thought to be one of the largest hoards of Anglo Saxon coins ever found in Britain.

Charlemagne’s Denarius, Constantine’s Edicule, and the Vera Crux

In 806 a much-discussed silver denarius bearing the likeness of Charlemagne was issued. This is called the “temple-type” coin due to the (as yet unidentified) architectural structure illustrated on the reverse side, and which is explicitly labeled as representing the epitome of “Christian Religion.”

Money and trade in Viking-Age Scandinavia

This paper addresses the question of how money was conceived and used in trade in the Viking Age and before, but starts with some brief reflections on the role of gifts.

Newest Irish coin features medieval landmark

The coin features the Rock of Cashel, the traditional seat of the kings of Munster.

Western Turks and Byzantine gold coins found in China

In general, before the 1980’s, most scholars treated these finds as evidences for the frequent connection between Byzantine and China, which could be further associated with the seven-times visits of Fulin (Rum) emissaries recorded in Tang literature. However, after the 1980’s, more and more researchers tended to take these gold coins as a result of prosperous international trade along silk road.

Did medieval sailors reach Australia?

Archaeologists hope to unravel the mystery of how coins dating back to the 10th century were found off the shores of Australia.

How the Medieval World Adapted to Rise of Islam

Historian from the University of Cincinnati examines how border areas and frontiers of the past adapted to major political, cultural and social shifts, specifically in terms of the rise of Islam in Asia and the Middle East.

European Written Sources on the Counterfeiting of Coins in the Middle Ages

Counterfeiting of coins is mentioned in a multitude of medieval written sources, manuscripts and books, starting with the Laws of the Visigoths in the mid 7th century, through the Visitation of the Chapter of Esztergom in 1397, to the Inferno, first part of Dante Alighieri’s most important work, the Divina Comedia.

The Proportions of the denominations in English mint outputs, 1351-1485

This article will combine the evidence of mint indentures, pyx trials, numbers of dies and hoards in an investigation of the problem of the proportions from 1351 to the end of the reign of Richard III in 1485.

The Empress in Late Antiquity and the Roman Origins of the Imperial Feminine

This thesis seeks to explore the construction and conceptualization of the Byzantine imperial feminine, up until the sixth century AD.


As these numbers suggest, Aylesbury seems to have made a comparatively minor contribution to the Late Saxon coinage pool. Basing his calculations on a total of some 44,350 English coins, Petersson estimated that, in each issue for which its coins were known, Aylesbury was responsible for only 0.1% or 0.2% of the recorded coins of the issue…

The coinage of Aethelred I (865-71)

The coinage of England in the third quarter of the ninth century was extensive. Dominated by the Lunettes type struck by a number of authorities (Kings of Wessex, Burgred of Mercia and Archbishop Ceolnoth of Canterbury) it presents a daunting quantity of material. However, the authors believe that focusing on the coinage of iEthelred I and Archbishop Ceolnoth provides the opportunity to concentrate on a key five to six year period in the devel- opment of the Anglo-Saxon coinage and specifically of the Lunettes type.

Anglo-Saxon law and numismatics: A reassessment in the light of Patrick Wormald’s the Making of English Law

In this article, I wish to return to the references to coinage in the Anglo-Saxon laws in the light of Patrick Wormald’s important research on the laws, especially his The Making of English Law: King Alfred to the Twelfth Century, which has made this difficult evidence much more penetrable to the non-specialist.

The Stamford and Peterborough mints

The Stamford mint has received considerable attention from several numismatists and historians, some of whom, including the Rev. Rogers Ruding, Francis Peck, the Stamford annalist, and Samuel Sharp, a Northamptonshire numismatist and antiquary, located the mint at Stamford Baron, Northamptonshire.

A Model of the monetary system of Medieval Europe

In this paper we build a model of a commodity money system with a limited number of types of coins and show how the choices of coin type influences economic welfare through the distribution of wealth and output.

‘Imaginary’ or ‘Real’ Moneys of Account in Medieval Europe? An Econometric Analysis of the Basle Pound, 1365–1429

‘Imaginary’ or ‘Real’ Moneys of Account in Medieval Europe? An Econometric Analysis of the Basle Pound, 1365–1429 By Ernst Juerg Weber Explorations in Economic History, Vol.33 (1996) Abstract: During the Middle Ages, the medium of exchange function of money was separate from the unit of account function. This has given rise to the misconception that the […]

Cache of Crusader gold coins discovered in Israel

Archaeologists working in the ruins of the Crusader town of Arsuf have uncovered a cache of more than 100 gold coins, worth more than $100 000.

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