There is no question that coinage was a major part of the visual material world of the Middle Ages. Whether that qualiﬁes it as a major art form, or an art form at all, begs the distinction between material culture and art.
This article considers the penny’s numismatic and archaeological context, and engages with the debate from a Norwegian perspective.
Other terms of account, such as shilling, mancus, mark and ora are to be found in Old English documents, but the silver penny was tile only coin to be issued, and remained so until the groat was introduced by Edward I in 1279.
Whilst the production of the coinage of Anglo-Saxon England is generally well documented there is remarkably little literature concerning the minting of cut pieces: that is, the halfpennies and farthings that make up a substantial proportion of the coins that were in circulation.