Guns in Scotland: the manufacture and use of guns and their influence on warfare from the fourteenth century to c.1625

Detail from a contemporary drawing of Edinburgh Castle under siege in 1573, showing it surrounded by attacking batteries

Guns first came into use in Western Europe in the fourteenth century and the Scots were using them by the 1380s.

Ponderous, Cruel and Mortal: A Review of Medieval Poleaxe Technique from Surviving Treatises of the Fourteenth and Fifteenth Centuries

Pollaxe combat depicted in the Fiore Furlan dei Liberi da Premariacco, circa 1410

There is no weapon more evocative of the brute force in violence both public and private, a weapon that seems to be perhaps epitomize and even enshrine violence on a grand scale.

The 700th Anniversary of the Battle of Morgarten

Illustration of the battle of Morgarten in the Chronicle of Diebold Schilling

On November 15, 1315, an Austrian army of at least a few thousand men marched along the shores of Lake Ägeri in central Switzerland. It was here that they were ambushed by over a thousand Swiss farmers.

Masculinity and Crusade: the influence of martial activity in the Latin East on Norman and Frankish warrior identity, the material culture, c. 1095-1300

The Morgan Bible, 13th century

This dissertation argues that masculine identity in the era of the Crusades developed with Christological and martial focus.

Technological Determinisms of Victory at the Battle of Agincourt

The Battle of Agincourt from Enguerrand de Monstrelet, Chronique de France. French. Manuscript op parchment, 266 ff., 405 x 300 mm. Brugge(?), c.1495

This article takes issue with the deterministic conclusions of a recent study by three scientists who investigated the effects of wearing armour on soldier exhaustion during the battle of Agincourt.

Agincourt 1415 – 2015

Agincourt 1415 - 2015 Anne Curry

Anne Curry talks about the myths and history of the Battle of Agincourt

Agincourt 1415: The Battle

Matthew Bennett agincourt

What you haven’t got is an ordered advance – you’ve got complete and total chaos.

Five Myths about the Battle of Agincourt

myths of the battle of agincourt

Anne Curry explains that ‘no other battle has generated so much interest or some much myth’ as the Battle of Agincourt, fought on October 25, 1415.

Tactics, Strategy, and Battlefield Formation during the Hundred Years War: The Role of the Longbow in the ‘Infantry Revolution’

Archers - British Library Royal 16 G VIII   f. 189

The English longbow had a tremendous impact on strategy and tactics during the Hundred Years War.

The King’s Welshmen: Welsh Involvement in the Expeditionary Army of 1415

Illustration of a Welsh archer from the late 13th century

This paper examines the evidence behind the claims that it was Welsh archers that won the battle of Agincourt for Henry V. As might be expected, it is a little less clear-cut than that.

From Agincourt (1415) to Fornovo (1495): aspects of the writing of warfare in French and Burgundian 15th century historiographical literature

Carte moderne de France par Pietro del Massaio et Hugues Commineau, vers 1470-1480. Cosmographie de Ptolémée, Paris, Bibliothèque Nationale de France, latin 4802, fol. 125v-126.

The object of this thesis is to inquire into some major aspects of the historiographical writing of war in France and Burgundy, from Henry V’s invasion of France in 1415 to the first wars of Italy.

Anna Komnene and her Sources for Military Affairs in the Alexiad

Miniature of the Byzantine Emperor Alexios I Komnenos (r. 1081-1118)

Without discounting the contribution of oral traditions of storytelling to the Alexiad, the study favours the growing consensus that Anna was more reliant on written material, especially campaign dispatches and military memoirs.

Why was the Longbow so effective?

Longbows at the Battle of Agincourt

One of the most feared military weapons of the Middle Ages was the longbow, used to legendary effect by the English in The Hundred Years’ War. While the longbow has gone down in history as a mighty weapon, what exactly was it and why was it so effective?

Five Fun Facts About Medieval Archery

Medieval Archery

Here are five fun facts about medieval archery which you can use to impress your friends

Honour, community and hierarchy in the feasts of the archery and crossbow guilds of Bruges, 1445–81

15th century shooting - image by Diebold Schilling the Younger

Archery and crossbow guilds first appeared in the fourteenth century in response to the needs of town defence and princely calls for troops. By the fifteenth century these guilds existed across northern Europe.

Hastings: An Unusual Battle


Part of the reason academic warriors have covered the ground so often is that the battle is by no means easy to understand. It was unusual in a number of ways; so unusual, that the battle demands special care in interpretation.

Trickery, Mockery and the Scottish Way of War

The earliest known depiction of the Battle of Bannockburn in 1314 from a 1440s manuscript of Walter Bower's Scotichronicon

This article seeks to examine two prominent themes, those of trickery and mockery, in how warfare against England was represented in Scottish historical narratives of the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries.

New Location for the Battle of Crécy discovered

Proposed site of the Battle of Crecy, showing the English and French approaches to the battlefield and the site of the English wagenburg and defensive ditch upon the site of the Herse, superimposed upon the modern topography. Image courtesy Michael Livingston

For over 250 years it has been believed that the Battle of Crécy, one of the most famous battles of the Middle Ages, was fought just north of the French town of Crécy-en-Ponthieu in Picardy. Now, a new book that contains the most intensive examination of sources about the battle to date, offers convincing evidence that the fourteenth-century battle instead took place 5.5 km to the south.

‘The boldest and most remarkable feat ever performed by a woman’: Fiery Joanna and the Siege of Hennebont

Fierry Joanna leads the charge - from La Bretagne ancienne, published in 1859

It ranks as one of the most fascinating stories from the 14th century, one that chroniclers of that time relished in telling and historians have ever since recounted.

Five Medieval Minutes with Steven Muhlberger

combat of the thirty

Formal deeds of arms were an opportunity for one group of people to show off their skills – particularly their horsemanship – and for other people to appreciate how bold and daring they were.

Medieval Fort Building 101

16th century stonemason at work

What does it take to build a fortification in the 10th century?

The Battle of Neville’s Cross as told in the Lanercost Chronicle

Battle of Neville's Cross from a 15th-century Froissart manuscript

The year 1346 is remembered in England mostly for the Battle of Crecy, where King Edward III defeated the French forces in one of the most important battles of the Hundred Years War. That year also saw another major battle, this one fought on English soil.

The English way of war, 1360-1399

Anointing of Pope Gregory XI. Battle of Pontvallin (1370). Bibliotheque Nationale MS Fr. 2643

This thesis challenges the orthodox view that the years 1360 to 1399 witnessed a period of martial decline for the English.

Walking Tour of the Battle of Stamford Bridge

Battle of Stamford Bridge - Wilhelm Wetlesen: Illustration for Harald Hardraada saga, Heimskringla 1899-edition

The Stamford Bridge Battlefield Walk takes place on the 26th September at 10:30am, a day after the battle would have taken place in 1066, and starts at Shallows Car Park, Stamford Bridge.

The last rex crucesignatus, Edward I and the Mongol alliance

Eleanor of Castile sucks the poison out of Edward I of England

This study explores the crusading efforts of Edward I, King of England (1272– 1307), in the last decades of the thirteenth century.

medievalverse magazine