“Birds,” writes Albertus Magnus, “generally call more than other animals. This is due to the lightness of their spirits.”
Sword and Shield of God: Byzantine Strategy and Tactics Under Heraclius During the Last Persian War and First Arab War
The death, resurrection, and ascension of Jesus in medieval Christian anti-Muslim religious polemics
In the Middle Ages, Christian Europe was in a state of intellectual stagnation and the theological doctrine that pain serves God’s purpose and must not be alleviated militated against the improvement in methods of narcosis. Nuland points out that the Middle Ages in Europe were dark ages so far as advances in the pharmacology of anesthesia were concerned.