The Walk to Canossa: The Tale of an Emperor and a Pope

Ever since it happened people have been debating what took place at Canossa. Some have called it a brilliant masterstroke by Emperor Henry IV, while others have termed it his humiliation.

The Floating State: Trade Embargoes and the Rise of a New Venetian State

This paper was given by Georg Christ and examined embargoes and state formation in the late medieval and early modern period in Venice.

Pope Gregory VII: A Church Reformer

By the time that Hildebrand was appointed Pope Gregory VII, the Church was in dire need of change and direction.

Regnum et sacerdotium in Alsatian Romanesque Sculpture: Hohenstaufen Politics in the Aftermath of the Investiture Controversy (1130-1235)

Although no longer preserved today, a series of paintings in the St. Nicholas chapel of the Lateran palace in Rome incurred Frederick Barbarossa’s wrath because they presented his predecessor, King Lothar of Supplinburg (1025-1137), in a submissive position as the pope’s vassal

The Italian Giant Bibles, Lay Patronage, and Professional Workmanship

Eleventh-century Umbro-Roman Giant Bibles were commissioned by varied church and lay patrons (and not only by Roman reform- party adherents) and crafted by ad hoc assemblies of paid craftsmen using methods of carefully calibrated, synchronous copying to reduce production time for the single commission.

What was the Investiture Controversy a Controversy About?

This thesis will aim to demonstrate that the Investiture Controversy was primarily a clash originating from fifth century ideas which were put into practice and developed by an eleventh century papacy.

Origins and Consequences of Canossa: the Evolution of Imperial-Papal Relations through the 11th century

The relationship between the German monarchs and the Roman papacy in the Middle Ages was an accepted partnership of mutual interests. The theme and scope of this essay is to explore the historical processes that fashioned such interdependence.

“In the Name of Almighty God”: Gregory VII and the Investiture Controversy

The Investiture Controversy was a conflict between Pope Gregory VII and the German King Henry IV over who had the right to appoint church officials in the Catholic Church.

Was there a Gregorian Reform Movement in the Eleventh Century?

Was there a Gregorian Reform Movement in the Eleventh Century? Gilchrist, John CCHA Study Sessions, 37(1970) Abstract If movements were simply a matter of counting heads, then the Gregorian Reform Movement would emerge unscathed. I simply draw your attention to the existenceoftheseries known as the Studi Gregoriani 7 vols.(1947-1960).Under the editorship of the late G. B. […]

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