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The Fourth Crusade and the Problem of Food Provision in The Accounts of Robert De Clari and Geoffroy De Villehardouin

The analysis discusses their account of food provision and how Crusaders managed to provide for themselves during their journey from Venice to Constantinople in the period between June 1202 and May 1204.

Who were the Templars?

The idea of the Knights Templar looked good on paper. Have knights from across Europe join a monastic order that would defend the Holy Land from non-Christians. They would be devout warriors fighting on behalf of God, an example for all of Christendom. What could go wrong?

The Square “Fighting March” of the Crusaders at the Battle of Ascalon (1099)

In this paper I will examine a number of theories about the origin of this particular marching formation, based on the manuals attributed to the Byzantine Emperors Maurice (582–602), Leo VI (886–912) and Nicephoros Phocas (963– 69) and several anonymous Byzantine military treatises of the sixth and tenth centuries.

Were Christians and Muslims Allies in the First Crusade?

In this article, we present the case that an alliance existed between the Crusaders and the Fatimid rulers of Egypt, and it was only when that alliance broke down that Jerusalem would become the target of a military attack.

Warriors and Civilians in the Crusade Movement: Military Identities and Status in the Liberation and Defence of the Holy Land (1096-1204)

The canonical definition of crusades as penitential pilgrimages meant that most expeditions during the first century of the movement included large numbers of non-combatants, which caused significant problems with regard to discipline and logistics.

Natural Disasters and the Crusades: Framing Earthquakes in Historical Narratives, 1095-1170

This thesis explores perceptions of earthquake causality in the accounts of twelfth century Syria and the ways that medieval views of natural disasters influenced historical writing.

Nature during the Crusades: Physical and psychological affects from the environment in crusader narratives

As the crusaders were highly affected by their religion so also were these encounters with nature interpreted within the religious framework. Therefore, it is interesting to see how the crusaders wrote about these encounters with nature.

The Experience of Sickness and Health During Crusader Campaigns to the Eastern Mediterranean, 1095–1274

This thesis proposes the reading of medieval chronicles, specifically those of the crusades, for their medical content. The crusades left a mark on the historical record in the form of dozens of narrative sources, but texts such as these are rarely considered as sources for medical history.

Time Loves a Hero: Alarcos, Alfonso IX, and A Lost Crusade (from 1197)

There are few kings that get such a consistently bad rap in medieval Iberian studies as Alfonso IX of Leon.

Inventing Saladin: The Role of the Saladin Legend in European Culture and Identity

Legends can forge cultural identities, yet they can also be the bane of historians. All too frequently legend is mixed with enough fact that it misleads historians and laymen alike.

Did Crusaders get Tattoos? Devotional Symbols and Practices in Medieval Europe and the Holy Land

I explore what appears to be a largely overlooked aspect of devotional practice associated with the medieval crusading movement.

Cross purposes: Frankish levantine perceptions of gender and female participation in the crusades, 1147-1254

Though numerous historians have studied the participation of women in the Levantine crusades during the twelfth and thirteenth centuries, few have investigated the trends in gender perceptions within the Latin states.

The Medieval Magazine (Volume 3, Issue 7)

In our latest issue: Being lovesick was a real disease in the Middle Ages! Judaism, War, and Chivalry: Why is this Knight Different than Other Knights? Travel Tips: San Lorenzo’s Medici Crypt! Crusade in Europe

Divine Vengeance and Human Justice in The Wendish Crusade of 1147

In this study I will focus on the question of whether the Wendish Crusade supports an ‘act of vengeance’ paradigm.

The Tenth-Century Collapse in West Francia and the Birth of Christian Holy War

This paper will argue that although these two disruptive changes brought major shifts in European society, and fuelled contemporary millennial anxieties, they were also part of a wider context of greater changes.

The First Crusade: Pope Urban II and Jerusalem vs. Diplomatic Unification

The First Crusade: Pope Urban II and Jerusalem vs. Diplomatic Unification By Alexandra Wurglics Adelphi Honors College Student Journal of Ideas, Vol.15 (2015) Introduction: Pope Urban II (1088-1099) could not have realized the enormity of his decision to call for the First Crusade. What was initially conceived of as a single, penitential expedition ended up sparking a long […]

Holy War – Holy Wrath: Baltic Wars between regulated Warfare and Total Annihilation around 1200

The Baltic crusades of the twelfth and thirteenth centuries were in principle aimed at converting infidels and establishing a new Christian plantation in the wilderness, but the contemporary narrative sources repeatedly tell of crusaders systematically chasing down pagans and annihilating them with the sword.

An Approach to Crusading Ethics

A crusade was a form of holy war, but holy war was itself only one expression of a wider concept, that of sacred violence.

The Troubadours and the Song of the Crusades

The troubadours have been credited as giving birth to the lyrical poetry of modern European languages. Emerging in France, they were predominantly male composers from parts of Western Europe during the High Middle Ages

Crusaders, Pilgrims, and Relics – Bearers of the Cross: Material Religion in the Crusading World 1095-1300

The Museum of the Order of St. John is hosting a series of events and talks to promote their project: Bearers of the Cross: Material Religion in the Crusading World 1095-1300.

The Global Side of Medieval at the Getty Centre: Traversing the Globe Through Illuminated Manuscripts

Los Angeles correspondent, Danielle Trynoski takes through the, ‘Traversing the Globe Through Illuminated Manuscripts’ exhibut at the Getty Museum.

Friendship, Betrayal, War: “Soldier of God” Movie Review

A Templar and a Muslim; their strange friendship is the premise of this week’s movie based in the 12th century immediately after the disastrous Battle of Hattin.

Creating a crusader saint: Canute Lavard and others of that ilk

In the Middle Ages, saints were invoked before great, decisive battles, they sometimes participated directly themselves, and they did so more and more often after the eleventh and especially the twelfth century.

Saladin and the Problem of the Counter-Crusade in Medieval Europe

The phrase Counter-Crusade is, obviously, a modern construct, but in 1144 the military situation in Syria did drastically change.

Support Structures in Crusading Armies, 1095-1241

This thesis will examine the support structures in crusading armies from the First Crusade, launched in 1095, to the end of the Barons’ Crusade, in 1241.

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