Hidden Complexities of the Frankish Castle

Ruins of Montfort Castle - Photo by Ariel Gera / Wikimedia Commons

This thesis is devoted to crusader castles and has a geographical focus on the Near Eastern regions.

Masculinity and Crusade: the influence of martial activity in the Latin East on Norman and Frankish warrior identity, the material culture, c. 1095-1300

The Morgan Bible, 13th century

This dissertation argues that masculine identity in the era of the Crusades developed with Christological and martial focus.

Seven Myths of the Crusades: An Interview with Alfred J. Andrea and Andrew Holt

Seven Myths of the Crusades

Seven Myths of the Crusades examines the many misconceptions that are associated with one of the most fascinating episodes of the Middle Ages.

Medieval Lisbon: Castelo de São Jorge

Walking along the castle walls, you can see the red and green flag of Portugal whipping in the wind alongside the black and white flag of the city. Photo by Medievalists.net.

Above Lisbon’s skyline of colourful tiled houses and red roofs lies Castelo de São Jorge, a dominating, but beautiful, 11th century fortress in the heart of this vibrant city…

The Sacred and the Profane: Understanding the Motives of the First Crusaders

The Four Leaders of the First Crusade (1095) - from François Guizot, The History of France from the Earliest Times to the Year 1789, (London, 1883)

Various explanations have been proposed to explain why tens of thousands of medieval men and women would travel several thousand miles and endure great hardship in order to try to reassert Christian control over the Holy Land.

The last rex crucesignatus, Edward I and the Mongol alliance

Eleanor of Castile sucks the poison out of Edward I of England

This study explores the crusading efforts of Edward I, King of England (1272– 1307), in the last decades of the thirteenth century.

Financing the tribute to the Kingdom of Jerusalem: An urban tax in Damascus


After a brief introduction to legal taxation and Saljuq fiscal policy, the philological problems in the definition of a specific due, al-fissa, illegitimate according to the sharia, will be addressed along with its political function and history. This due was levied in Damascus for the tribute to the Kingdom of Jerusalem.

Genoa: The cog in the new medieval economy

View of Genoa by Christoforo de Grassi (after a drawing of 1481)

Journalist and author Nicholas Walton writes about medieval Genoa’s economy, trade and role in the Black Death. Walton recently published a book on Genoese history entitled, “Genoa: La Superba”

Localizing the Holy Land: The Visual Culture of Crusade in England, circa 1140-1307

Holy Sepulchre Chapel, Winchester Cathedral  - photo by Christophe.Finot / Wikicommons Media

Analyzing diverse visual material, from images of the military orders on seals, and monastic maps of Palestine in manuscripts, to royal chambers with paintings of holy warfare and the display of Holy Land relics at court, my project juxtaposes sacred and secular commissions made for crusaders and affiliates of chivalric culture.

How to destroy gods

Bishop Absalon topples the god Svantevit at Arkona - created by Laurits Tuxen (1853–1927)

In the year 1168 a Danish bishop destroyed three pagan gods. The story is told in Gesta Danorum, by Saxo Grammaticus, which has recently been entirely translated into English for the first time.

The Rewriting of History in Amin Maalouf’s The Crusades Through Arab Eyes

crusades through arab eyes

I argue that while Maalouf brilliantly deconstructs the Western image of the Crusades as a heroic time by documenting the barbarity of the Crusaders without falling into the pitfall of simply inverting the terms of the dichotomy, the agenda driving his rewriting of this historical period leads him to partially repeat what his book is supposed to undo

‘God helped thee; The eagle got food afresh’: Norse Crusaders and the Pleasure of Killing

King Sigurd and his men ride into Miklagard by Gerhard Munthe.

The men of the north are often depicted in the Norse sagas as taking great pleasure in killing, even doing it for no good reason

Ten Unusual Things during the First Crusade

Godfrey of Bouillon slaying a bear, f. 41v. Sébastien Mamerot, Les Passages d’Outremer, Fr. 5594, BnF

The First Crusade was one of the most written about events during the Middle Ages. Many Christian writers, including some who took part in the pilgrimage/campaign, left detailed accounts of what happened. They sometimes also included some more unusual tales, ranging from battles with bears to sitting on a throne when you are not supposed […]

Embracing Death, Celebrating Life: Reflections on the Concept of Martyrdom in the Order of the Knights Templar

Detail of a miniature of the burning of the Grand Master of the Templars and another Templar. From the Chroniques de France ou de St Denis, BL Royal MS 20 C vii f. 48r

Although research on the concept of martyrdom during the era of the Crusades has gained considerable prominence, it has rarely been applied to the Knights Templar. This is surprising, as the Templars were the first military order and paved the way for a new monastic development; they were devoted to warfare only; and they, together with the other military orders, but unlike most Crusaders, established a permanent presence in the hostile environment of the Holy Land, consequently facing the threat of death both regularly and frequently.

A Comparative Analysis of the Concepts of Holy War and the Idealized Topos of Holy Warrior In Medieval Anatolian And European Sources

story of the crusaders

This thesis focuses on the relations between the idea of holy war and the portrayals of holy warriors in medieval narratives composed by those in the service of power-holders.

Hero or Villain?: Two views on Simon de Montfort, Crusade Leader

Death of Simon de Montfort

There is perhaps no better medieval example of the phase ‘Truth is in the eye of the beholder’ than these two versions of the death of Simon de Montfort, the leader of the crusaders during the Albigensian Crusade.

New Books on the Crusades

new books crusades

Looking for the latest books about the Crusades? Check out our list of ten recently published books…

How far were the Military Orders responsible for the results of the Third Crusade?

Gerard de Ridefort and his troops

In order to assess how responsible the Military Orders were for the results of the Third Crusade this article will be structured by the analysis of three key areas in which they played a part; the siege of Acre, the march to Jaffa and their other military contributions, and their role as councillors to King Richard I of England.

Lasting Falls and Wishful Recoveries: Crusading in the Black Sea Region after the Fall of Constantinople

16th century map of the Black Sea

This paper examines the Black Sea question in the second half of the 15th century, with special emphasis on crusading and religious questions.

Crusading Warfare, Chivalry, and the Enslavement of Women and Children

"Taking of Jerusalem by the Crusaders, 15th July 1099", (oil on canvas), Signol, Emile (1804-92) / Château de Versailles, France / Giraudon / The Bridgeman Art Library

The subject of the treatment of prisoners taken in crusading warfare, long neglected, has attracted considerable interest in the last fifteen years, but more can still be said, particularly on the ways in which crusaders dealt with their enemies’ women and children, the archetypal non-combatants.

Rethinking the Crusades

Gustave Dore crusades battle

Today, the Crusade influence can be seen across the world in novels, movies, sport teams and even restaurants.

The Expansion of Christendom: Crusading in Northern Europe, 1147 – 1415

Teutonic Knights - by Wojciech Kossak (1857–1942)

Between 1147 and 1415 holy wars raged in the lands on the eastern shores of the Baltic Sea in Northern Europe.

Byzantium and the First Crusade: Three Avenues of Approach

Godfrey of Bouillon before the Byzantine emperor Alexius Comnenus in Constantinople, 1097. Painting by Alexandre Hesse.

A recurring theme in the historiography of the First Crusade is that of the Byzantine emperor asking Pope Urban to send a small contingent against the Turks and receiving instead vast armies over which he had no control

‘Far is Rome from Lcohlong’: Gaels and Scandinavians on Pilgrimage and Crusade, c. 1000 – c. 1300

Map of Europe in 1603 by Abraham Ortelius

To what extent was the Mediterranean terra incognita to the inhabitants of the fringes of northwestern Europe – Gaels and Scandinavians – in the central Middle Ages?

Templars, Hospitallers, and 12th-Century Popes: The Maltese Evidence

Templars Hospitallers and 12th-Century Popes The Maltese Evidence

To date, scholars have cataloged approximately 1,000 pre-1198 papal documents for Templars and Hospitallers, including deperdita (lost documents, inferred from other, still existing documents), as well as forgeries and falsifications.

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