The pre-history of the Iberian Crusades can be traced to the disintegration of Umayyad Caliphate of Córdoba in 1031 and the subsequent emergence of a constellation of weak successor kingdoms.
Examining the Prussian Crusades (1230-83), the Lithuanian Crusades (1280-1435), and the Novgorod Crusades (1243-16th century).
In this column, I look at the next phase in history of the Northern Crusades: that of “penitential war.”
I am going to sketch a very brief history of the so-called “Northern Crusades” – that is, the crusades undertaken by the Christian kings of Denmark, Poland and Sweden, the various German military orders, and their allies against the pagan peoples of the southern and eastern shores of the Baltic Sea.
The third phase of crusading in the Holy Land – that of its “maturity” – began with the expiration of Frederick’s truce in 1239 and ended with the fall of the last remnant of Outremer, the city of Acre, in 1291.
Episode 4 of The Medieval Podcast – Danièle is joined by Andrew Latham to talk about the Crusades.
The history of the crusades from the fall of Jerusalem to Saladin in 1187 to the city’s restoration to the Crusader States in 1229.
What would have happened if Richard had defeated Saladin and taken Jerusalem in early 1192?
What if Richard had pressed his attack in December 1191? Would the city have fallen to the crusaders? Or would the Christian host have smashed itself to pieces on the walls of the Holy City?
Why did King Richard decide to abandon his attempt to liberate Jerusalem in 1192?
In my next few columns, I’m going to explore the way in which crusading manifested itself in the Holy Land.
How did the crusades emerge as an institution in the medieval world?
By the late 11th century the Roman Catholic Church began to evolve into a distinctive – and powerful – controller of military power.
If you’re interested in why the medieval Church did what it did – and how it was able to do so in the political sphere – I think you’ll enjoy this series.
How was war understood in late medieval culture?
What did medieval states look like? A look at the most common and significant forms: kingdoms, principalities, communes and leagues.
In this column, I trace on the evolution of the idea of “sovereignty,” which I believe to be the conceptual linchpin of this historical process.
What were the fundamental social goods toward which it was ordered and from which it derived it legitimacy? In short, what was the moral purpose of the later medieval state?
Let us, in other words, return to the medieval era…
How a distinctively post-feudal, later medieval understanding of “political community” evolved in the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries.
So far in this series, we have talked about medieval “revolutions” in military power and judicial authority. A third great change in the late medieval era was in the control of money.
During the early medieval era, judicial power and authority – the right and ability to adjudicate legal disputes and enforce the law – had hemorrhaged from the public authorities of the Carolingian empire into the hands first of great magnates and then lesser lords.
From the late 1200s onward, royal warmaking capabilities underwent profound changes – changes that made them decisively less feudal and decidedly more state-like.
In this, the first post of the Medieval Geopolitics series, I take a look at the two types of political war fought in medieval Europe.