Category: Articles


Bede’s Mapping of England

Modern historians of mapping have assumed a wide understanding of what ‘map’ might mean. With regard to medieval texts, the idea is understood to embrace a range of genres that includes, for example, world maps, zonal diagrams, land surveys, itineraries, street plans, and architectural drawings.


Wu Zhao’s Remarkable Aviary

Despite these fertile pre-conditions, the biological fact that Wu Zhao was a woman presented serious problems in her effort to assume the dragon throne. Even in these open times, the Confucian bureaucracy held great political sway just as patriarchal values, which held to the principle that “the male is venerated and the female is denigrated” (nan zun nu bei 男尊女卑), still exerted tremendous social influence.