By Philip Bruce Baldwin
PhD Dissertation, Queen Mary, University of London, 2012
Abstract: This study examines the crusading movement during the reign of Pope Gregory X in the latter part of the thirteenth century, before the Latin presence in the Levant came to an end. It seeks to demonstrate the important position of this little-known pope, who formed the bridge between what can now be seen as two separate eras in the crusading period, namely, the era of the traditional passagium generale, and the ‘new’ era of the passagium particulare. To do this, it will study Western and Muslim sources to understand the condition of the Holy Land during Gregory’s pontificate to see the effect it had on the manner in which he organised his crusade, using both traditional and ‘new’ methods. By drawing on sources from crusading in Iberia, it will show that Gregory approached the crusade flexibly, and was not, as commonly described by historians, wholly obsessed with the Holy Land. It also seeks to dispel one of the more popular myths surrounding Gregory, which is that he wanted to change the government of the kingdom of Jerusalem by putting Charles of Anjou in charge there. A study of the Angevin chancery records – little used by crusade historians – will demonstrate that it was not Gregory’s idea, but rather Charles’ own. Finally, using Gregory’s papal registers and chronicle evidence, this study will attempt to imagine the crusade that would have occurred had Gregory not died prematurely. This includes a discussion of the unprecedented scope of its recruitment as evidence of Gregory’s exceptional ability as a crusade organiser, as well as the evidence and reasons for a dramatic change in direction away from Egypt.