The other sect which used hashish during the 12th century, according to Arabic historians, was the Sufis, a mystical branch of Islam that first appeared at the end of the eighth century.
Discoveries include a silver seal matrix from the 12th century, a Roman eagle head and a complete set of trade weights from the 18th century.
Media portrayals of the Crusades depict them as fierce battles between Christian knights and Muslim warriors, while some suggest that they were an episode in a wider clash of civilizations between the Western Christian world and the Muslim Middle East. But are these depictions accurate?
One of the most famous castle’s in Scotland, Eilean Donan Castle dates back to the 13th century.
The first incarnation of the Mongol Imperial Guard differed from the Roman Praetorians, who were, from the moment of their origins, seen as an “elite unit” and an “important arm of the state and a formidable personal military power base.” The Mongol Imperial Guard under com- mand of Chinggis Qan, established in 1206, could be seen in light somewhat contrasting to that of the Romans.
The spread of Christianity had a tremendous effect on the culture and life of Cappadocia. Christianity was prevalent throughout the region as early as the 2nd-century A.D.1 During the 8th and 9th-centuries Arab invasions began to deplete the population and threatened to overcome the empire.
This connection between feeling and seeing is often exemplified in paintings that include depictions of either devotional or prominent secular figures within a carefully created domestic environment.
This paper, in examining the reigns of the Ethelred, Canute, Harold Harefoot and Hardicanute, and Edward the Confessor, will show how they came to power, the legacy each left – if any — and how the events during each reign ultimately led to the Battle of Hastings, with William the Conqueror’s victory changing England forever.
In this essay, I will discuss the historical importance of panegyric poetry as a performative act, representing a component of a lord’s self-perception. I will limit myself, for the sake of time and for the sake of presenting a clear picture, to the poetry of the age of the Gogynfeirdd or not-so-early poets (about 1100 to 1282), representing the strongest tradition of patronage of poetry and a period of increased Welsh political independence.
… Samarkand was seen as the last great urban Islamic stop.4 Perhaps because of this, the period between the Arab invasion of Samarkand and the Mongol invasion in 1220 fomented many of the mythologies about the city which will feature prominently in this paper.
Although used as both a cough remedy and a flavour enhancer in Roman cuisine, the true reason for silphium’s popularity was its reputation as a potent oral contraceptive. So great was the demand for this plant that the city of Cyrene was supported almost entirely by its sales, and by the 4th century C.E., silphium was extinct.
Used in the ﬁrst medical universities in history, it was years ahead of its time, proving to be relevant in education half a millennium after it was originally written.
A medieval village, set in the Tuscan hills of Italy among castles and monasteries, can be yours for €2.5 million.
The lintel fragment of Eve from the Cathedral of St. Lazaire at Autun (Figure 1) has been praised by art historians as one of the greatest monumental figural works of the Romanesque period.
The legend of Prester John is one of the most fascinating and powerful myths of all time. To say that Medieval Europeans knew little about the world outside of their native continent is truly an understatement. It was an age in which much was assumed rather than ascertained about the exotic lands beyond.
Although Joan’s trial took place in France and The Malleus Maleficarum was published in Germany, they are suitable for comparison because this text became the definitive manual for witchcraft inquisitors across Europe.
Michelle Ziegler examines the questions on why does plagues seemed so much worse in the Middle Ages. Why did medieval populations die so much more frequently? Was it because of malnutrition?
Today the well preserved Medieval centre of Ferrara still has numerous household and kitchen gardens. Nevertheless, a significant number of these plants also have alimentary/medicinal uses, documented both in contemporary historic-literarybotanic sources, and in Italian ethnobotanical sources
Our knowledge about which plants were cultivated in Denmark in the antiquity and in the Middle Ages is still improving, because of new excavations, studies of archives, better dating methods and macro- and micro- fossil analyses in old cultural layers.
Overpopulation in the Scandinavian countries created the Viking society, whose tradesmen, settlers and sea warriors had a considerable influences on the European countries. In return, influenced by what they saw, they brought back goods of all kinds, probably also seeds and posssibly plants.
With the spread of his Holy Roman Empire around 800 AD, Charlemagne built many monasteries across Europe, many of which became centres of brewing.
The rabbit was a rare beast in medieval England, and much sought after for both its meat and its fur.
The following paper presents the key investments made in the town, since 2007, when Malbork adopted a Local Revitalization Program, and their impact upon its residents and tourists.
Conference theme is Travel, Contact, Exchange