Religion and culture in classical Islam and the Christian West
By George Makdisi
Religion and Culture in Medieval Islam, edited by Richard G. Hovannisian and Georges Sabagh (Cambridge University Press, 1999)
Synopsis: Examines the development of the institution of scholasticism, which began in the Middle East in the ninth century, and expanded into Western Europe in the twelfth century. Includes the development of universities in Baghdad, Bologna and Paris.